Age related illnesses | August 7, 2018 | Author: Naturopath
You may be familiar with vitamin B3, or nicotinamide. Nicotinamide in various forms when supplemented, may be more bio available and bio effective for our cells.
B3 converts biochemically to NAD+, an essential biological molecule in our body that supports the functioning of our cells. We feel this as energy, an alert brain, efficient detoxification, healthy cholesterol production, healthy aging and a good sleep helper. Basically, nicotinamide is a molecular power communicator.
The association between metabolism, health and longevity has long thought to be linked, based on similarities between the aging process, metabolic dysfunction and disease (obesity, diabetes, neurodegeneration, related cancer). These disease processes, dysfunctions and disorders have been influenced by multiple proteins, including sirtuins and PARPs, these are tightly controlled through the balance and regulation of NAD+.
When supplementing with nicotinamide, levels of NAD+ are increased, and negative effects of the aging process may be decreased.
Aging and Lifestyle - Unfortunately, aging depletes NAD, but your day to day activities can also cause a depletion of NAD+. This can include excess alcohol and coffee consumption, refined foods, over-eating, excess sun exposure, and not following a good sleep pattern (shift workers, time zone travellers).
Other factors include:
Looking a Little closer – without getting complicated
Put simply, cell energy refers to the conversion of foods/fuel for cells to function.
The food we eat has to be broken down to their smallest components for our cells to be able to utilise it for fuel. These components are transported into the mitochondria of the cell. Protein, carbohydrate and fat - amino acids, sugar and lipids. Mitochondria are tiny power houses within our cells. The mitochodria take the energy from the food we eat and convert it into another energy - in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is then used to fuel other cellular processes
Efficient functioning mitochondria equals lots of energy in all systems of the body
Back to food for fuel – a hard working coenzyme called nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is needed to store the energy from the breakdown of food into those smaller components. NAD is found in every living cell and is involved in many biochemical oxidation-reduction reactions.
When our cells need fuel to perform vital functions they rely on the glucose and fatty acids from the food we eat.
Nicotinamide supplement may promote this function and make the process more efficient!
NAD plays a vital role in how quickly we age.
Catch 22 – as we grow older our NAD declines, as our NAD declines our cells get older and we experience this through the outward signs of aging. It is not just on the outside we notice the signs of aging, Mitochondrial depletion of NAD in the cells is one of the major causes of aging and this can affect all areas of the body. Loss of muscle strength and fatigue, along with other more serious aging issues such as insulin resistance, vascular inflammation and also other annoying occurrences, such as increased fat storage and increased fat production.
Nicotinamide can support an improved aging environment
Nerve cells in the brain called neurons require an enormous amount of cellular energy to perform. Certain conditions can cause these cells to deplete the resources, making it harder for recovery. Stroke, brain trauma and Alzheimer's disease are some conditions that may be affected. Recent studies have shown that enhancing NAD+ levels can greatly reduce oxidative cell damage of metabolic tissue, including the brain. Nicotinamide riboside acts on the brain by normalizing levels of NAD+.
In Alzheimer’s disease, the brain’s usual DNA repair activity is impaired, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction, lower neuron production, increased neuronal dysfunction and inflammation.
Nicotinamide can offer a therapeutic strategy for age-associated degenerative diseases
The inner surface of blood vessels is lined with a layer of cells, vascular endothelial cells, which serve as a barrier protecting the microenvironment and homeostasis.
Deterioration of either the structure or function of endothelial cells results in a variety of cardiovascular diseases.
Not only that, if our mitochondria are not working properly, then the heart will not generate the energy it needs, leading to heart failure.
NAD has a supporting action in the mechanisms of cell protection.
Mitochondrial function can be improved by taking supplements of Nicotinamide
The liver is one of the most important and busiest organs in our body. Some of its roles include converting potential life-threatening components of metabolism and ingestion into safe metabolites for excretion, and metabolizing the substances we make in our bodies, such as hormones and neurotransmitters. By supporting the production of NAD and mitochondrial function, our liver function is enhanced and conditions such as fatty liver and inflammation are reduced. Recent studies have confirmed that NAC+ can reduce the effects of alcohol on the liver and prevent fat accumulation.
Nicotinamide can enhance Liver function
Nicotinamide may help with regulating Circadian Rhythms
The circadian clock is an internal clock system that lets us know when it’s time to sleep and time to be awake, allowing for a rhythmic function of the body over a 24-hour period. This is known as the circadian rhythm. Aging and age-related diseases have been associated with circadian rhythm irregularities.
NAD+ metabolism has a close relationship with the efficient functioning of the circadian clock.
Metabolism is chemical transformations that takes place within our cells – converting food or fuel to energy for cellular processes. Nicotinamide can help our cells be more metabolically active supporting more efficient use of insulin, cholesterol, liver function and be less responsive to inflammatory mediators that cause disease.
NAD prevents the detrimental metabolic effects of high-fat diets.
Sirtuins regulate important biological pathways in our cells. Sirtuins have been implicated in influencing aging, cell death, inflammation and circadian rhythms processes.
Nicotinamide can protect against high-fat diet-induced metabolic abnormalities
Nicotinamide increases NAD+ levels in all cells and tissue
When you take various forms of Nicotinamide you can directly increase your levels of nicotinamide riboside an active form of Nicotinamide. Taking a Nicotinamide supplement may improve the levels of Nicotinamide riboside in the body than what you may receive from B3 in your diet. NAD is continuously being used and replenished in our body and a dosage of 250mg of Nicotinamide or more daily is suggested to maintain and elevate natural aging levels.
You can find upper limits of nicotinamide suggested by the Australian Government’s Nutrient Reference Values of Australia and New Zealand Click Here which suggest an upper limit of 900mg of nicotinamide daily. Nicotinamide salts are proven to be more bioactive than nicotinamide alone so smaller amounts can be used.
Nicotinamide may boost NAD+ levels supporting optimum metabolic function, mitochondrial function and the production and storage of energy. This means you may see benefits in staying healthy, being clear headed, improving detoxification, reducing inflammation, reducing heart disease and sleeping better. Your cells may have improved energy that helps you to look and feel younger.
Speak to your Practitioner or Pharmacist if you feel Nicotinamide supplementation could benefit you and your health.
NAD+ metabolism and the control of energy homeostasis - a balancing act between mitochondria and the nucleus. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4487780/
Osiecki, Henry; The Nutrient Bible 9th Edition; Bio Concepts publishing QLD Aust.
Role of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide and Related Precursors as Therapeutic Targets for Age-Related Degenerative Diseases: Rationale, Biochemistry, Pharmacokinetics, and Outcomes. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29634344
Nicotinamide enhances repair of arsenic and ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage in HaCaT keratinocytes and ex vivo human skin.
Sirt1 Inhibits Oxidative Stress in Vascular Endothelial Cells https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5435972/
Chronic nicotinamide riboside supplementation is well-tolerated and elevates NAD+ in healthy middle-aged and older adults https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-03421-7
Nicotinamide Riboside Preserves Cardiac Function in a Mouse Model of Dilated Cardiomyopathy. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29217642
Wang S, et al. (2018) Nicotinamide riboside attenuates alcohol induced liver injuries, Redox Biology 17:89-98, doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2018.04.006
The NAD(+) precursor nicotinamide riboside enhances oxidative metabolism and protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22682224
The Circadian NAD+ Metabolism: Impact on Chromatin Remodeling and Aging https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/3208429/
Kauppinen A, et al. (2013) Antagonistic crosstalk between NF-κB and SIRT1 in the regulation of inflammation and metabolic disorders, Cellular Signalling, 25(10):1939-1948, doi: 10.1016/j.cellsig.2013.06.007. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23770291