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Eating For Your Skin

Skin Conditions | December 1, 2017 | Author: Naturopath

skin, diet

Eating For Your Skin

Our skin is an external barrier protecting us from the effects of potentially damaging physical conditions, bacteria, and chemicals. It is also the largest organ of detoxification, releasing and excreting waste products and toxins from within our body.

Thus, when you look in the mirror, it is not surprising that your skin can reveal a lot about your eating habits and overall health. Is it dry, flaky and wrinkly? Is it inflamed and itchy? Or is it smooth, soft and supple?

Factors that affect skin ageing

Exposure to sun radiation, air pollution and tobacco smoke damage the skin and lead to aged skin appearance. On the other hand, maintaining a healthy lifestyle, with a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, limited alcohol intake, and enough sleep, will result in youthful appearing skin.

What does the gut have to do with the skin?

Hippocrates, the father of modern medicine, stated, “All disease begins in the gut.” 

What does the gut have to do with the skin?Ninety nine percent of human bacteria reside in our gut.

Bacteria break down our food, toxins and drugs, manufacture vitamins and hormones, prevent colonisation by harmful microbes, and play an important role in our immune system.

An imbalanced state of bacteria in the gut, termed dysbiosis, may result in inflammatory responses in the body.
 

Gut bacteria also maintain the integrity of the intestinal barrier. This barrier is a chemical and physical protective component of the gut, safeguarding the intestines against invasion of harmful bacteria and toxins. Impaired intestinal barrier can result in intestinal permeability, also known as leaky gut, a condition that allows leakage of toxic substances into the bloodstream.

Both dysbiosis and leaky gut are associated with a growing number of different inflammation-related disorders, including inflammatory skin conditions

For example:

  • Skin disorders are often seen in patients with inflammatory bowel disease such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.
  • Small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), a condition involving excessive growth of bacteria in the small intestine, was found in one study to be is 10 times more prevalent in those with acne rosacea than healthy individuals. SIBO has been shown to be associated with increased intestinal permeability.
  • Studies found that patients with acne and seborrheic dermatitis may have disrupted gut bacteria.
  • Coeliac patients often have skin manifestations of dermatitis herpetiformis (chronic, intensely itchy skin rash).

Diet is the most important factor in shaping the composition and diversity of our gut bacteria

What we eat can influence both the composition and diversity of intestinal bacteria. The Western diet, which is high in animal protein, sugar and fat, and low in fibre, is associated with reduced bacterial diversity, which in turn is linked to obesity and inflammatory diseases.

Best foods for your skin

Fermented foods and beverages

Fermented foods and beveragesNaturally fermented foods and beverages are rich in probiotic bacteria that enhance the diversity and composition of our gut bacteria. They are often more easily digestible than unfermented foods, contain higher nutrition value, assist in weight management, and reduce the risk of inflammatory chronic diseases (such as cancer, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease). They are also very healthy for our skin.

One study found that drinking a formula of fermented barley and soybean for eight weeks significantly increased skin hydration. The same effect was noted in healthy adult women who drank probiotic and prebiotic fermented milk daily for four weeks.

Another study demonstrated that a daily intake of fermented citrus juice alleviated symptoms of atopic dermatitis (eczema). And lastly, when a group of healthy non-smoker males and females aged 40–65 years received an oral supplement of fermented papaya formula for 90 days, their skin showed significant improvements in the markers of skin ageing, such as skin evenness, level of moisture and elasticity.

Foods to include: yoghurt, kefir, miso, tempeh, sauerkraut, kimchi, kombucha.

Foods rich in vitamin A

Vitamin A is involved in cell turnover in the skin and required for proper immune function. Vitamin A deficiency is associated with hyperkeratosis, a skin condition characterised by skin thickening, calluses and corns on hands and feet.

Foods to include: liver, eggs, cod liver oil, milk, sweet potato, pumpkin, carrots, spinach, and kale.

Foods rich in vitamin C

Vitamin C plays an essential role in the production of collagen, the protein that gives our skin strength and elasticity.

Foods rich in vitamin CHigher vitamin C intake is associated with a lower likelihood of wrinkled skin appearance and may also protect the skin against UV radiation. Vitamin C deficiency is known as scurvy, and is manifested in the skin as lesions, rough skin, and poor wound healing.

Foods to include: capsicum, guava, dark leafy greens, broccoli, citrus fruit (orange, grapefruit, lemon, etc.), and strawberries.

Foods rich in zinc

Zinc has been used for a long time for healing of ulcers and wounds due to its anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties and its ability to enhance tissue regeneration. People with acne have been found to be deficient in zinc.

Foods to include: Oysters and other types of seafood (such as crab), beef, pork, turkey, beans, nuts and seeds.

Foods rich in Omega-3 fats

Foods rich in Omega-3 fatsOmega-3 fatty acids are anti-inflammatory. There is some evidence that they may improve inflammatory skin conditions such as acne, atopic dermatitis, and psoriasis.

Foods to include: Fatty fish such as salmon, sardines, tuna, trout, mackerel, and herring, as well as walnuts and flaxseeds.

Foods rich in biotin

Biotin is a type of B-vitamin that is required for required for metabolism of fatty acids and is often added to skin and hair products. Biotin deficiency can occur in individuals after prolonged consumption of raw egg white, and includes hair loss, dermatitis, and skin rash.

Foods to include: Egg yolk, liver, and yeast

Foods rich in antioxidants

Antioxidants are substances that protect our cells against the damage done by free radicals - molecules produced by our body when breaking down food or from external sources such as to tobacco smoke, air pollutants, industrial chemicals, and exposure to X-rays.

When our antioxidant defence system cannot protect us from free radical generation, it can suffer a condition known as oxidative stress, which among other things is associated with ageing. Antioxidants have been shown to protect our skin from sunlight-induced damage and may increase skin elasticity and hydration. Therefore a diet rich in anti-oxidants may delay the effects of ageing.

Foods to include: Berries, pomegranate, apples, pineapple, oranges, kiwifruit, artichokes, green leafy vegetables (such as spinach and kale), red cabbage, sweet potatoes, broccoli, tomatoes, nuts (walnuts, pistachios, pecans, hazelnuts and almonds), and turmeric.

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References

Albenberg, L. G., & Wu, G. D. (2014). Diet and the intestinal microbiome: associations, functions, and implications for health and disease. Gastroenterology, 146(6), 1564–72. http://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2014.01.058

Bertuccelli, G., Zerbinati, N., Marcellino, M., et al. (2016). Effect of a quality-controlled fermented nutraceutical on skin aging markers: An antioxidant-control, double-blind study. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 11(3), 909–916. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bmfh/35/1/35_2015-010/_article

Bischoff, S. C., Barbara, G., Buurman, W., et al. (2014). Intestinal permeability--a new target for disease prevention and therapy. BMC Gastroenterology, 14, 189. https://bmcgastroenterol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12876-014-0189-7

Bowe, W. P., & Logan, A. C. (2011). Acne vulgaris, probiotics and the gut-brain-skin axis - back to the future? Gut Pathogens, 3(1), 1. http://doi.org/10.1186/1757-4749-3-1

Ccfa.org. (2017). Skin Complications of IBD | Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation. [online] Available at: http://www.ccfa.org/resources/skin-complications-of-ibd.html

Coeliac UK. (2017). About coeliac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis.  [online] Available at: https://www.coeliac.org.uk/coeliac-disease/about-coeliac-disease-and-dermatitis-herpetiformis/dermatitis-herpetiformis/

Enders, G. (2015). GUT. 1st ed. Germany: Greystone Books.

Harima-Mizusawa, N., Kamachi, K., Kano, M., et al. (2016). Beneficial effects of citrus juice fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 on atopic dermatitis: results of daily intake by adult patients in two open trials. Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health, 35(1), 29–39. http://doi.org/10.12938/bmfh.2015-010

Jones, D. (2010). Textbook of functional medicine. 1st ed. Gig Harbor, WA.: Institute for Functional Medicine.

Kano, M., Masuoka, N., Kaga, C., et al. (2013). Consecutive Intake of Fermented Milk Containing Bifidobacterium breve Strain Yakult and Galacto-oligosaccharides Benefits Skin Condition in Healthy Adult Women. Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health, 32(1), 33–9. http://doi.org/10.12938/bmfh.32.33

Krutmann, J. et al., 2017. The skin aging exposome. Journal of dermatological science, 85(3), pp.152–161. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27720464

Lee, S., Kim, J.-E., Suk, S., et al. (2015). A fermented barley and soybean formula enhances skin hydration. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition, 57(2), 156–63. http://doi.org/10.3164/jcbn.15-43

Linus Pauling Institute 2015. Biotin. Available at: http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/vitamins/biotin

Linus Pauling Institute 2015. Vitamin A. Available at: http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/vitamins/vitamin-A#deficiency  

Linus Pauling Institute 2013. Vitamin C. Available at: http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/vitamins/vitamin-c

Linus Pauling Institute 2015. Zinc. Available at: http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/minerals/zinc

Marco, M. L., Heeney, D., Binda, S., et al. (2017). Health benefits of fermented foods: microbiota and beyond. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 44, 94–102. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.copbio.2016.11.010

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Tamang, J. P., Shin, D.-H., Jung, S.-J., & Chae, S.-W. (2016). Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods. Frontiers in Microbiology, 7, 578. http://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.00578

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