Diets, nutrition | November 4, 2017 | Author: Naturopath
There is a slow and steady rise in vegetarianism in Australia. Findings from Roy Morgan Research reveal that the number of Australian adults whose diet is all or almost all vegetarian has risen from 1.7 million people to almost 2.1 million between 2012 and 2016, and a similar trend has been noted in New Zealand. The greatest shift occurred in NSW where there has been a 30% growth in this type of diet.
According to the Australian Vegetarian Society, a vegetarian is a person who eats foods that are free from any ingredients derived from the slaughter of animals (including chicken and fish).
Not all plant foods are created equal. It is important to consume quality plant foods in order to meet your needs and avoid potential nutrient deficiencies. Giving up meat but consuming sweetened beverages, refined grains, French fries, and sweets would be detrimental for your health.
For example, a recent study found that male vegetarians were at greater risk for depression than their meat-eating counterparts, possibly a result of nutritional deficiencies from an inadequate vegetarian diet.
A well-planned vegetarian diet can be nutritionally balanced and healthy. Some nutrients may be more difficult to obtain on a vegetarian diet, but careful planning can ensure that your nutrition needs are met.
Proteins are major functional and structural component of every cell in the body, necessary for the body’s growth, maintenance, and repair, including building and preserving body muscle, bones, skin, cartilage, and blood. A common misconception is that vegetarians will not get enough protein from their diet. However, lacto-ovo-vegetarians can get their protein from eggs and dairy products, such as yoghurt, cheese, and milk. Beans, lentils, nuts, seeds, tofu, and many vegetables supply protein too.
Vitamin B12 is found naturally in animal foods. Deficiency is not usually a problem for most people on a vegetarian diet that includes milk and eggs. Vegans may need a daily supplement.
Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world. Because iron from plants is not absorbed as well as that from animal sources, vegetarians have been found to have lower iron stores, and may need to consume more iron than non-vegetarians. Good sources of iron that are suitable for a vegetarian diet include: legumes, such as peas, beans and lentils, eggs, dark green leafy vegetables, such as kale, watercress, and broccoli, dried fruit, and nuts and seeds.
Calcium is important for bone health and strength, as well as in regulating muscle contraction, heart beat, blood clotting and functioning of the nervous system. For lacto-ovo vegetarians, dairy products provide plenty of calcium. Vegans can obtain their calcium from fortified plant milk (rice, soy, almond), fortified soy yoghurt, tofu, tahini, or other plant foods rich in calcium such as kale, rocket, watercress and broccoli.
Omega-3 fatty acids have multiple health benefits, mainly due to their anti-inflammatory actions. However, as oily fish are the major dietary source of omega-3 fatty acids, vegetarians may have lower intake. Plant foods containing omega-3 fats include chia seeds and linseeds (or flaxseed oil), as well as walnuts and soy products.
Rennet, used to make cheese, and gelatine, which is sometimes found in marshmallows, margarines, jelly and yoghurts – are derived from animals and therefore are not suitable for vegetarians.
Vegetarianism has become a lifestyle choice to many. Like any healthy diet, a vegetarian diet requires you to include a variety of foods, reading labels, careful planning and preparation.
A registered dietitian or a qualified nutritionist can help you create a balanced vegetarian diet that is right for you.
However, the transition towards eating a plant-based diet does not necessarily mean that you have to become a strict vegetarian.
You can aim to increase the amount and variety of plant foods you eat every day and choose to follow a semi-vegetarian diet, also known as a flexitarian diet; eating a healthy and balanced diet and still occasionally including meat or fish.
For example, the Mediterranean diet is a plant-based diet that allows small amounts of chicken, dairy products, eggs, and red meat.
Australian Vegetarian Society. Available at: http://www.veg-soc.org.au/
British Nutrition Foundation 2017. Healthy eating for vegans and vegetarians. Available at: https://www.nutrition.org.uk/healthyliving/helpingyoueatwell/veganandvegetarian.html?limit=1
Hibbeln, J.R. et al., 2018. Vegetarian diets and depressive symptoms among men. Journal of Affective Disorders, 225, pp.13–17. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28777971
Harvard Health 2016, Becoming a vegetarian. Available at: https://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/becoming-a-vegetarian
Leitzmann, C., 2014. Vegetarian nutrition: past, present, future. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 100 Suppl 1(Supplement 1), p.496S–502S. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24898226
Rosi, A. et al., 2017. Environmental impact of omnivorous, ovo-lacto-vegetarian, and vegan diet. Scientific reports, 7(1), p.6105. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28733610
Roy Morgan Research 2015. Vegetarianism on the rise in New Zealand. Available at: https://www.roymorgan.com/findings/6663-vegetarians-on-the-rise-in-new-zealand-june-2015-201602080028
Roy Morgan Research 2016. The slow but steady rise of vegetarianism in Australia. Available at: https://www.roymorgan.com/findings/vegetarianisms-slow-but-steady-rise-in-australia-201608151105